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Neurological Foundations of Sensory Integration

Current neurological research guides therapist’s clinical reasoning for using sensory integration intervention. Recent research proposes that sensory-motor activities help typical youngsters develop internal models of their body and voluntary movements. For example through repeated touch and movement of their thumb as well as learning to ride a bicycle, children develop internal models. With repeated practice these internal models become integrated neurological representations allowing automatic feed-forward control for functional activities. We become able to automatically locate and use our thumb without looking and can ride a bike on a flat road without concentrating on the integrated arm, leg, and balance reactions involved.

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Sensory integration challenges appear related to dysfunctional interactions between the neocortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum. These dysfunctional neurological connections cause many children with sensory integration or developmental challenges to experience sensory over-sensitivity, under-sensitivity, body image, and movement planning challenges. For example, individuals with Autism Spectrum disorders and other developmental challenges appear to show significant differences from typical children in representations by the somatosensory cortex of their thumb that may reflect disrupted internal models (Coskun et al. 2009).

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Sensory integration intervention appears to promote development of internal models of body image and movement through active exploration that provides naturalistic pressure, touch, movement, visual, and auditory sensory input at an optimal level of challenge.  Sensory integration intervention involves clinical reasoning based on experience and neurological research in gradually guiding active movements involving pressure, touch, movement, visual and auditory sensory input to improve functional skills.  An understanding of this current neurological research regarding development of internal models can be useful to therapists for clinical reasoning during sensory integration intervention.

References:

Koziol, L. F., Budding, D. E., & Chidekel, D. (2011). Sensory integration, sensory processing, and sensory modulation disorders: Putative functional neuroanatomic underpinnings. Cerebellum, 10, 770-792.

http://reseauconceptuel.umontreal.ca/rid=1MWJVHX5D-CRTPQ-1GC/SPD_SI_SP_SMD%20-%20Putative%20Functional%20Neuroanatomic%20Underpinnings.pdf 

Marco, E. J., Hinkley, L. B., Hill, S. S. & Nagarajan, S. S. (2011). Sensory processing in Autism: A review of neurophysiologic findings. Pediatric Research, 69, 48R-54R.

http://www.nature.com/pr/journal/v69/n5-2/full/pr9201193a.html

 

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FAB Strategies® to Improve Self-Control

FAB Strategies® are Functionally Alert Body Strategies that can be used by parents, teachers, as well as Occupational, Speech, Physical, and Mental Health therapists to improve youngster’s functional behavior.  FAB Strategies® were developed to guide transdisciplinary intervention for individuals with developmental, mental health, post traumatic stress disorder, and sensory processing challenges. FAB Strategies® combines developmental, sensory processing, behavioral, touch pressure, mindfulness, movement and neuropsychology interventions to help individuals with complex behavioral challenges.

The four sections of FAB Strategies® are environmental adaptation, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. While reducing aggression in special needs students FAB Strategies® simultaneously facilitates attention, learning, and parental involvement in typical students. FAB Strategies® can be used for regular class teaching as well as small group and individual intervention sessions. Many typical students lack adequate seated attention, self-control, and sensory-motor skills to master their academic learning requirements. FAB Strategies® are fun active learning tasks that engage students’ musical, visual-spatial, auditory, interpersonal, and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to improve learning.

FAB Strategies® are guided by the FAB Strategies® to Improve Self-Control form FAB STRATEGIES FORM and FAB Strategies® for Pre-K and Kindergarten form FAB StrategiesPre&KForm. The FAB Strategies® forms list strategies organized into four sections addressing: environmental adaptation, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. The teachers and therapists develop a functional goal and choose at least one strategy from each section for goal attainment. Strategies chosen are checked and underlined for use across disciplines.

The FAB Strategies® forms can be used as a checklist of helpful activities to consider when developing transdisciplinary interventions for students with behavioral challenges. The FAB Strategies® forms were also designed as an efficient way to develop home programs and provide a list of effective strategies when students transfer to other teachers and therapists. The FAB Strategies form enables teachers and therapists to individualize interventions that improve behavior in response to each student’s developmental level and individual needs.