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FAB Strategies Mindfulness Movement Activities

I wanted to share this video of my FAB Strategies Mindfulness Movement activities to improve student’s behavior  https://www.facebook.com/educationresourcesinc/videos/943257499082558/ It was recorded by ERI at their Therapy in the Schools Conference.  Mindfulness movement activities are simple to do and can improve attention as well as enhance behavior by reducing student’s anxiety and giving them a break from seated work.

Mindfulness movement activities help all students yet are especially helpful for students with developmental disabilities, anxiety, sensory processing challenges, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, ADHD, and/or other behavioral challenges.  Brief five minute mindfulness movement activities can help students attend better and promote the processing of academic learning when done between academic subjects (e.g., after math before proceeding to language arts).  Mindfulness movement activities can also be done in conjunction with teaching Positive Behavioral Support Interventions and used as a pre-correction before challenging school activities (e.g., lunch, playground, assemblies, and transitions).

In this video I demonstrate Touching the head-shoulders-stomach for sensory body awareness, Belly breathing, Hand opening and stretching to prevent hand cramping from writing (while breathing in) followed by thumb fisting as a mudra for relaxation (while breathing out)

MindfulClk1MindfulClk2

Bird breathing, and Mindful Clock Sitting (righting reactions moving forward-back and laterally).

Mindful clock standing activities can also be used, particularly to help students with sensory irritability gain basic body awareness of the anterior-posterior portions of their body through forward-back balancing movements  

MindfulClk3MindfulClk4

as well as sensory awareness and stability of the bottom (feet) and top (head) of their body through squatting then moving on their toes.

SquatToes

I hope more early childhood and special education teachers as well as occupational, physical, speech/language and mental health therapists will begin using basic sensory mindfulness movement activities with their students.  Mindfulness movement activities offer a great opportunity for teachers and therapists to integrate and co-teach the academic and developmental curriculum areas.  As we continue to integrate the regular and special education curriculums, mindfulness movement activities can benefit students while promoting transdisciplinary interactions between teachers and therapists.

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3 Popular Neurologically Based Treatments

Occupational, Physical and Speech/Language therapists often include popular neurologically based approaches in their interventions for students with behavioral and developmental challenges. Brain Gym, Bal-A-Vis-X and Sensory Integration Intervention are three popular neurologically based approaches to promote neurological development for improved functional skills. While many clinicians, parents and families report that these interventions are clinically useful in achieving functional goals, they are criticized for lacking adequate research support.

Given the current emphasis on using evidence-based strategies it is important that therapists using these approaches apply current research to justify their use of these popular neurologically based approaches. A good way to show the efficacy of using these approaches is through goal attainment scaling, which can validate the effectiveness of strategies in achieving the student’s education related goals SIforASDGoal It is also important to consider research related to the components of these methods.

In addition to gathering baseline data and assessing treatment effectiveness through goal attainment scaling, it is important to understand the evidence-based components of these popular neurologically based approaches that can contribute to their effectiveness. First is their emphasis on child motivation through allowing students to choose the treatment activities. Second is their use of cardiovascular and strengthening exercises, and third their implementation of pressure touch strategies.

First, these popular neurologically based approaches facilitate student motivation by involving students in selecting fun and engaging activities. While sometimes criticized for being popular “only because students enjoy them”, the importance of activities that motivate children cannot be over-emphasized.   PRT (Pivotal Response Treatment) is a behavioral intervention that emphasizes the importance of student motivation. PRT was found to be highly effective in improving communication and behavior skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.   The emphasis of PRT on facilitating motivation is a major reason for this success. Client motivation is facilitated in PRT by emphasizing child choice in activity selection and reinforcing attempts. In addition to its developmental efficacy in improving communication and behavior, recent research suggests PRT promotes more normalized neurological functioning.

The second component of these popular neurologically based approaches is their use of aerobic and strengthening exercises. Participation in aerobic exercise has been repeatedly associated in research with improved attention, learning and neurological development. Regular moderate exercise for 30 minutes daily appears to promote neurological development of the hippocampus for learning in both typical students (Cramer et al., 2011) and students with neurological challenges (Ploughman, 2008).

The third evidence based component of these popular neurologically based approaches is their use of pressure touch through massage and brushing. Massage has consistently been found through repeated research to decrease pediatric stress, which can help reduce behavior and learning challenges. More specifically, Asian massage strategies were found to improve behavior and communication skills in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (Piravij et al., 2009; Silva & Schalock, 2013) www.qsti.org

While caution should be used in applying these popular neurologically based approaches to school therapy interventions, these techniques can be useful for attaining school goals. It is important to gather baseline data and use progress toward school related goals in judging the effectiveness of these strategies. It is also important to consider research supporting the specific strategies used, as well their research supported components of student motivation, aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, and touch pressure   Reduce Problematic Reflexes:Hab

References:

Pfeiffer, B. A., Koenig, K., Kinnealey, M., Sheppard, M., Henderson, L. (2011). Effectiveness of sensory integration interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders: A pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(1), 76-85.

Piravej, K., Tangtrongchitr, P., Parichawan, C., Paothong, L., Sukprasong, S. (2009). Effects of Thai traditional massage on Autistic children’s behavior. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(12), 1355-1361.

Ploughman, M. (2008). Exercise is brain food: the effects of physical activity on cognitive function. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 11 (3), 236-240.

Silva, L., & Schalock, M. (2013). Treatment of Tactile Impairment in Young Children with Autism: Results with Qigong Massage. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork, 6(4), 12-20.

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Role of school OT’s, PT’s, SLP’s in Behavior Intervention

School Occupational, Physical and Speech Therapists play a significant role in improving student behavior. While traditionally viewed exclusively as the role of school social workers, psychologists, and behaviorists the complex problems of students with interrelated behavioral and developmental challenges can be helped by the contribution of school therapists.  The relationship between behavioral problems, the occupation of students, communication/language abilities, and gross motor skills supports the role of school occupational, speech/language and physical therapists as members of school teams helping students with behavioral and developmental challenges.

By teaming with occupational, speech/language and physical therapists, teachers and school mental health specialists can enhance their school positive behavioral support programs with expanded use of visual supports, mindfulness, music, exercise, and sensory-motor activities (Patten et al., 2013; Schaaf et al., 2014).  There is emerging evidence that cardiovascular and resistance exercise enhances body awareness, attention, as well as functional strength and endurance for improved participation in school learning tasks http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208137/pdf/nihms297861.pdf

School therapists can utilize evidence based mindfulness strategies as movement breaks that improve attention, and integrate behavioral strategies into their school therapy to enhance student’s school behavior.  Behavior for Therapists Slides The picture below describes the FAB Strategies adaptation of the PATHS PBS Turtle Technique to help students with special needs learn to calm down and avoid aggression.

FABModifiedTurtleTech

The AOTA supports the role of school occupational therapy in helping to improve student’s behavior (Cahill & Pagano, 2015).  The following Occupational Therapy article describes clinical school occupational therapy strategies that can be used to reduce student aggression  (Click on highlighted, then double click on lower heading) SchoolOTRedAgg

References

Cahill, S. M. & Pagano, J. L. (2015). Reducing restraint and seclusion: The benefit and role of occupational therapy. AOTA School Mental Health Toolkit. http://www.aota.org/-/media/Corporate/Files/Practice/Children/SchoolMHToolkit/Reducing-Restraint-and-Seclusion.pdf

Flook, L., Smalley, S., Kitil, M., Galla, B., Kaiser-Greenland, S., Locke, J., Ishijima, E., Kasari, C. (2010). Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26(1), 70-95. http://skolenforoverskud.dk/Artikler%20-%20mindfulness/Flook-Effects-of-Mindful-Awareness-Practices-on-Executive-Function-1.pdf

Kazdin, A. E. (2008). The Kazdin Method for parenting the Defiant Child. NY, NY: Mariner Books.

Laugeson, E. A. (2014). The PEERS curriculum for school-based professionals: Social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Routledge.

Mahammadzaheri, F., Koegel, L. K., Rezaee, M., Rafiee, S. M. (2014). A randomized clinical trial comparison between pivotal response treatment (PRT) and structured applied behavioral analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 44(11), 2769-2777.

Schaaf, R. C., Benevides, T., Mailloux, Z., Faller, P., Hunt, J., van Hooydonk, E., … & Sendecki, J. (2014). An intervention for sensory difficulties in children with Autism: A randomized trial. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 44(7), 1493-1506.

Warner, E., Spinazzola, J., Westcott, A., Gunn, C. & Hodon, H. (2014). The body can change the score. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 7(4), 237-246.